Trabzon’nun İngilizce Tanıtımı

Trabzon’nun İngilizce Tanıtımı

Area: 4.685 km²

Population: 795.849 (1990)

Traffic Code: 61

The modern city of Trabzon is the largest port along the Black Sea coast, and at beginning of Caucassia and Iran transit road. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, there has been an influx of traders from the CIS, especially neighbouring Georgia, and the city is becoming more cosmopolitan.

Trabzon is probably best remembered from the classic novel, “The Towers of Trebizond”, and many earlier pieces of travel literature, although little remains of the romanticised image of exotic culture and architecture. One of the highlights is Aya Sofia, the medieval church with outstanding Byzantine frescoes, the Russian Market and the old houses and mosques dotted around the town. Trabzon is a good transport hub from which to explore the Black Sea region.

Discrits: Trabzon (center), Akçabaabat, Araklı, Arsin, Beşikdüzü, Çarşıbaşı, Çaykara, Dernekpazarı, Düzköy, Hayrat, Köprübaşı, Maçka, Of, Sürmene, Şalpazarı, Tonya, Vakfıkebir, Yomra.

How to Get

By Road: The main bus station is 3km east of the port, although many buses will drop passengers off closer to the city. Regular services include Istanbul (18 hours), Erzurum (6 hours), Ankara (12 hours), Artvin (4½ hours) and Van (17 hours). There are daily buses to Georgia, to Tblisi (10 hours) and Batumi (4 hours).

Bus station Tel: (0462) 325 2343, 325 2081.

By Air: Trabzon airport is the largest in the region, 8km east of the city centre, with several daily direct flights from Ankara and Istanbul, some which connect with flights from Izmir and Antalya. Minibuses and Havas buses operate services between the airport and city.

Airport Tel: (0462) 325 7080, 321 3446. Fax: 325 7080

By Sea: There is a weekly car-ferry from Istanbul (41 hours) leaving Istanbul on Mondays, and making the return journey on Wednesdays. It is also possible to use this ferry for the shorter journeys between Rize and Samsun. In the summer, there are four ferries a week, plus daily catamarans from Sochi in Russia. The port is on the eastern side of the city centre.

Turkish Maritime Lines: (0462) 321 1156-57

Where to Visit

ATATÜRKPALACE

Situated in a small pine grove in the Soguksu area, this mansion was constructed at the beginning of the 20th century and belonged to Greek banker Karayannidhis, who was forced to abandon it 20 years later. Ataturk stayed here in 1924, 1934 and 1937 during his visits to Trabzon, and it was formally presented to him a year before his death. It was then decorated with furniture and décor from that period, filled with photographs of the leader and opened by the city’s municipality as Ataturk Museum. It is still an impressive building, set in immaculate gardens, and there are regular buses running the 7km from the city centre.

SÜMELA MONASTERY

This Greek Orthodox monastery was constructed within a cavern in the middle of a steep slope above dense forests, and lies 45km south of Trabzon. This was the most important of many monasteries built in the area during the Byzantine era and the best preserved, even after it was abandoned in 1923 when the Turkish Republic was created. Several years later one of the monks discovered treasures – including the famous icon said to have been painted by St Luke and responsible for several miracles. Recent restorations have enhanced the quality of the different chapels, some of which contain frescoes dating back to the 9th century.

Its setting is within Altindere national park, with thick forests, streams and trout farms, making it a popular excursion especially for locals at weekends. There are private bus tours from Trabzon, and it is also possible by minibus or shared taxi.

Sümela Monastery (Religion Tours)

Büyük İmaret Mosque (Hatuniye / Ayşe – Gülbahar Hatun Mosque-Center): The mosque was constructed in the name of the mother of Yavuz Sultan Selim, Ayşe – Gülbahar Hatun in 1514 inside a Külliye complex near Zagnos Bridge. This mosque holds a special place among the other Turkish Creations in Trabzon. The mosque enters into the group of “mosques with lodges of dervishes” that form a separate plan type in the early period Ottoman Architecture. The “courtyard” which is almost always encountered in the mosques with lodges of dervishes is not present in this mosque. The stonemasonry of the walls are important. The minaret located at the west side is in the classical Ottoman minaret style.

Fatih Mosque (Ortahisar Mosque – Panaghia Chrysocephalos Church-Center): The structure is known as the major church of Trabzon and is located in the Ortahisar quarter. It is assumed that the church was constructed over the ruins of an ancient Roman temple by Hanmibalianos, the nephew of Roman Emperor Constantin (A.D. 325 – 364).
The church is known as “the Cathedral of the Comnens ” and as a depiction to the Mother Mary, it was named as the “Goldenhead”. The reason for naming the church with the name “Goldenhead” is that in painting of the Mother Mary which is located on the apsis shaped semi-circle, the moiré of Mother Mary is coated with gold. After the conquest of Trabzon by Turkish forces in 1461 the structure was transformed into a mosque. Some of the researchers compare the church with the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul..

Çarşı Mosque (Center): This mosque is located in the Kemeraltı Çarşı quarter and is the biggest mosque of Trabzon province. The mosque was constructed by one of the governors of Trabzon Hazinedarzade Osman Pasha in 1839. The marvelous stonemasonry of the structure is attractive.

İskender Pasha Mosque (Center): The mosque is locatedbehind the Trabzon Town Hall in the Taksim Square. The structure is known to be constructed in 16th century by the Governor of Trabzon İskender Pasha. Various attachments had been constructed to the mosque in various times and has a beautiful stonemasonry.

AyasofyaChurch (Haghia Sophia Church-Center): The church is located inside a monastery complex which is two kilometers west of Trabzon province. It is assumed to be constructed by the King of Commenos State I. Manuel between the dates 1238 – 1263. The four pillared and three abscissa chapel located to the north is dated earlier than the structure.
The Hagia Sophia of the Trabzon is the most important structure of late Byzantine Period of the region. The structure was transformed into a mosque in the period of III. Murat in 1670 by Beylerbeyi Ali Bey. The structure was restored between the dates of 1958 – 1962 by the cooperation of Edinburg University and Charitable Foundations General Directorate and entered into service as a museum in 1964. The structure has a beautiful stonemasonry. It is also very rich in stone decorations and frescos.

The church has depictions as; the banishment of Adam and Eve from heaven, Mother Mary sitting on the throne, The ascend of Jesus to the sky, the birth of St. Jesus, the miracles of St. Jesus,The last supper of St. Jesus, the descend of St. Jesus to hell, the baptism, the symbols of Bible writers. The church also contains decorations like single headed eagle, unnatural creatures, geometric plant like decorations and bird figures. Especially the multi colored niches, pillar titles at the western side and the geometric patterned medallions at the northern sşide are the samples of Seljukian stone decoration art.

St. Anna Church (Küçük Ayrasıl Church-Center): The church is located on the Maraş Street of Trabzon Province and is one of the oldest churches of the province. It is actually a triple nef basilica. There is a Byzantine emboss and a repair inscription belonging to the I. Basil between the dates 884 – 885 on the entrance gate.

Sumela Monastery (Mother Mary Monastery, Maçka): The monastery is located 17 km. south of Maçka district on a steep side of the Mother Mary Valley, 250 meters above the valley bottom inside a cave. The monastery could only be reached after a hard and long climbing but the wonderful landscape and spectacle of the monastery worth all efforts for climbing. There are numerous rumors relevant with the initial foundation of the monastery. The most common among these rumors is that the foundation of the monastery was laid by the monk Barnabas from Athens and his nephew Sophrenios. The Sumela Monastery had been identified with a Portrait of Mother Mary which was painted by St. Luke since the first foundation period and which is rumored to be create miracles. According to the rumors, Barnabas and his nephew comes to Trabzon having the Portrait of Mother Mary and the childhood of Jesus, which is said to be painted by St. Luke. Here they gather volunteer laborers whom would assist them in the construction of the monastery and then reach to Değirmendere (Altındere in Pyxites region) of Maçka district. The monks climb the steepest slope of the Kora mountain and reach to a cave in which water is dripping. The monastery is then founded in this cave as two chambers (A.D. 385). This two chamber monastery founded by the two monks had been accepted as a sacred and holy temple by the Christians both from the Catholic and Orthodox sects after the death of the two monks (around year 412). After the separation of Istanbul from Western Roman Empire, the Byzantibe Emperor Justinien (527 – 568) orders fortification of the Trabzon province and expanding of the monastery. Later he offers a rich libraryas a gift to the monastery.

As Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered Trabzon Province in 26 October 1461, similar to his behaviours in Istanbul, he protects most of the churches in Trabzon and meanwhile the Sumela Monastery like the Hagia Sophia Church and even grant land and donate gold to the monastery.
During the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim, the Sultan becomes ill while he was hunting and was taken and treated by the monks of Mother Mary Monastery. Whenhe returns to Istanbul and get crowned, he do not forgets the monastery and the monks that have treated and curesd him and grants land, donates gold and four golden candlesticks each having a length of one and a half meters.
III. Sultan Ahmet, had covered all of the expanses of restoration of inner walls and renewal of the frescos of the monastery in 1710. I. Sultan Mahmut had ordered the renewal of the frescos in the other sections of the monastery and covered all of the expanses in 1740. In the 19th century, the number of the monks and the priests had reached a hundred and the land property owned by the monastery had been expanded by the final donation of Sultan Abdülhamid and reached to contain 15 villages around the monastery.
The importance of the Mother Mary Monastery, which is the oldest Christian Temple in the Black Sea Region is that the unnatural structure of the monastery lacated in the wonderful beauties of the surrounding fauna and flora and the wall and ceiling decorations and adornments constructed in various periods. At the praying and worshipping place in the first section, there is the sacred fountain in which the water drips in as triple drops and 3 – 4 chapels. The interior and exterior sections of the Temple is decorated with frescos with themes taken from the bible. The second chamber is composed of four floors and as one descends from the stairs there are resting rooms, halls, libraries, provision storage rooms and toilets to the right. The rooms which lie şin ruins is understood to be 72 rooms from the records. Reaching tothis section of the monastery is possible via a stairway with 96 stairs. Remony is made each year in 14th of August.

Santa MariaChurch (Center): The church was constructed by the order of Sultan Abdülmecid in 1869 – 1874 in order to be used by the foreigners who visit Trabzon and is still active. Rich decorations and the depictions of St. Andrew, St. Peter and St. Eugenius located on the northern and western walls are attractive.

Vazelon Monastery (Maçka): The monastery is located 14 kilometre away from Maçka district, between the pine tree forest. The exact foundation date of the monastery in uncertain but some researchers claim that the foundation of the monastery could be between A.D. 270 – 317 years. The monastery had been restored by emperor Justinianus in 565 and undergo numerous repairs and restoration processes until the present day.
The Vazelon Monastery had influenced the religious, cultural and economic structure of Maçka district after 13th century. It is said that the Sumela Monastery was constructed by the incomes of Vazelon Monastery, which was the wealthiest monastery of the region. The frescos depicting the heaven, the hell and the final judgement located at the northern exterior wall of the triple nef church still preserves their beauty and vigor.

CASTLES

The castle walls stretch from the coast to the hills in the city centre, and are the best-preserved ruins of the region. The centre of the old fortified town is Ortahisar, literally Middle Castle, with the upper citadel upstream and Ortahisar Cami and several gates. This mosque, also known as Fatih Cami, was probably a church in the 3rd century and later the main cathedral during the Trapezuntine Empire. Fatih Tower was constructed by Empress Irene in 1340, and used as a meeting-place for Trabzon aristocracy. There is little left of the upper citadel, once the Comnenius palace, but a few crumbling walls.

Arsenal: It is mentioned that the tower, which is known as Fatih Tower or Irene Tower Kulesi and has no definite information due to no inscription, is constructed by Empress Irene (1340 – 1341) as meeting place of Trabzon aristocracy.

MOSGUE AND CHURCHES

Trabzon in an important destination for religious tourism, containing many interesting and historical mosques and churches. These include: Gülbaharhatun Mosque, Iskenderpasa Mosque, Çarsi Mosque, Büyük Imaret Mosque; Haghios Eugenius Church (Yeni Cuma Mosque), Panaghia Chrysocephalos Church (Fatih Mosque), Santa Maria Church, Hagia Sophia Church and Santa (Dumanli) churches.

HANS

Hans within the city include Vakif Han or Tas Han, a 16th century collection of tradesmen and artisan shops set around a courtyard which are still in use today. A semi-ruined Bedesten lies on the other side of Carsi Cami, the largest mosque in town.

ANCIENT CITIES

Altındere National Park Altındere National Park of Maçka province of Trabzon, is 45 km away from Trabzon city center, and hunting is forbidden but eating, accommodation, camping services are maintained. Sümela Monastery is also included by it.

Boztepe Lying southeast of the city centre, the area of Boztepe dominates the surroundings and has always been highly respected through the ages. The hill has fine views of the surrounding city and the sea, and is a popular place for picnics in the summer, and there are the remains of a ruined convent and monastery. The Convent of Panaya Theoskepastos dates back the 14th century and was used as a Greek Orthodox church until 1923. Kaymakli, around 4km south, is a former Armenian monastery and contains well-preserved frescoes dating back to the 17th century, with the courtyard now used by the adjacent farm. There are some minibuses that go near to the monastery, although a short walk is also necessary.

Çamburnu It is a pine grove – beach and picnic area of Sümene province on Trabzon – Rize State Highway.

Sera Lake This lake was formed from a crater, the result of a landslide in 1950, and lies near Akçaabat, 2km from the sea and 8km west from the centre of Trabzon. It is a good picnic area and there are also restaurants nearby.

HIGHLANDS

Trabzon Plateaus

The Sera LakeArea

Transportation: Take the Trabzon-Akçaabat road for 7 km. and then turn south on the gravel road. It is 2 km. to the village. There are minibus services between Trabzon and Akçaabat 24 hours a day.

Description: There are basic services like running water, electricity and a post office, as well as a very fine camping and picnic area. Fishing in the lake is allowed.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Accommodations are provided by the village bed and breakfast houses. All types of basic necessities can be obtained from the village. The local fish restaurant, tea house and markets are open until late at night.

Maçka-Şolma Highland

Transportation: Access to the village 22 km south of Maçka is provided by a dirt road. At the 16 km. mark, one will begin to see the beautiful lush slopes of Mt. Kulin. In the summer there is a minibus service to the village.

Description: The infrastructure of this village perched at 1700 m. has been completed. There is running water electricity and telephone.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Because there are no accommodation facilities, camping gear should be brought, but a small market, green grocer, tea house and butcher will provide some basic necessities.

Maçka-Mavura Highland

Transportation: There is a minibus service in the summer to the Mavura highland, located 18.5 km west of Maçka.

Description: There is running water and electricity is this highland village as well as a tea house, a market, a butcher and a green grocer. The dirt road between Mavura and Solma is an ideal 3.5 km hike.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Because their are no accommodations, camping equipment should be brought in. Basic supplies can be obtained from the village.

Maçka-Kiraz Highland

Transportation: The 22 km road between the town of Maçka and the village of Gürgenağaç is asphalt. At the village take the dirt road south for 7 km. In the summer, commercial vehicles offer passenger service to visitors.

Description: The village which sits at 1850 m. has a completed infrastructure. Visitors can fish for trout in the ice-cold creek which runs through the village or sled down the steep grass covered hills. The ‘Ayeser’ festival is held here on the third Friday of July every year.

There is electricity, running water, a fountain and a post office, as well as a small market, tea house, butcher and restaurant.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: There are bed and breakfasts in the villages of Hamsiköy and Gürgenağaç. The markets and restaurants in the highland can provide all other basic necessities.

Lapazan Highland

Transportation: Located south of Gürgenağaç, access to this village sitting at 2200 m. is by means of a 27 km dirt road. A four-wheel drive vehicle is recommended.

Description: There are no services in this highland village and in June and July there are still scattered snowbanks on the slopes. The slopes here are ideal for sledding as the vegetation is thick enough not to be crushed down and killed.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Bring camping equipment if you intend to stay over night in this pristine area.

Maçka-Çakırgöl Highland

Transportation: Access to the village is provided by a dirt road that turns off to the right 5 km out on the Maçka – Meryemana road and continues for another 90 km. Sometimes it is possible to get a ride with one of the commercial vehicles using the road. Off-road vehicles should be used to get to the Çakırgöl highland.

Description: On the way to the 2504 m. Çakırgöl Highlands, you will pass by the highland villages of Arnavutluk, Kırantaş, Akarsu, Ayraksa, Livayda Kurugöl, Mesaraş Furnoba, Kasapoğlu, Camiboğazı, Ortaoba and Deveboynu.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: You should bring your own tents and other basic camping supplies.

Çaykara – UzungölTouristCenter

Transportation: There is year-round transportation to Uzungöl, which is 20 km from Çaykara.

Description: Situated at 1250 m., Uzungöl, with its unparalleled natural beauty, has become a popular tourist destination in the last few years. The infrastructure is complete and the 500,000 m2 lake has large numbers of trout and carp. Ten kilometers south of Uzungöl in the Holdizon Mountains is Lake Balıklıgöl, a perfect place to take a hike and observe wildlife in a pristine unspoiled environment.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: There are lodgings at Uzungöl which command a view of the lake. There are a number of restaurants and wooden bungalows (72-bed capacity), all of which are open year-round.

Karadağ Tourist Center- Karadağ Highland

Transportation: Access to the village is provided by turning west on a dirt road 12 km out on the Akçaabat – Düzköy road. Continue for another 28 km in order to reach the village. Commercial vehicles offer transportation during the summer months.

Description: The oxygen-rich air of this village sitting at 1946 m has made it a popular place for those suffering from lung problems. The village infrastructure is complete. Wildlife here is abundant and souvenirs and gift items are available.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: There is a bed and breakfast with 10 beds and a small market, a bakery, a teahouse and a restaurant.

KaradağTouristCenter – Hıdırnebi and KuruçamHighlands

Transportation: You can get to the village by turning west on the dirt road 12 kilometers out on the Akçaabat – Düzköy road. The road is open year-round and commercial vehicles provide transportation. It is one kilometer from Kuruçam to Hıdırnebi.

Description: With an elevation of 1742 m., the village has a completed infrastructure. The ‘Hıdırnebi’ Festival, which is held July 20-22, is held on Hıdırnebi Mountain, a beautiful lookout with a spectacular view. In the forest it is possible to see wolves, foxes, jackals and other wild animals and it is a great place for a photo safari..

The local villagers sell hand-made bags, woolen socks, woven baskets and kitchen utensils such as wooden spoons and churns.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: There is a small market, green grocer, butcher, bakery, restaurant and teahouse. During the summer a bed and breakfast provides accommodations. In the village of Acısu, there is a mineral spring and a bed and breakfast.

Tonya-Erikbeli Tourist Center- Erikbeli Highland

Transportation: From Tonya it is 24 km to the Erikbeli Highland. In the summer months, commercial vehicles provide transportation.

Description: The infrastructure of this village situated at 1800 m. has been completed. The Erikbeli Tourist Center is located at the intersection of the roads leading to the highlands of Kadırga, Çatma Obası, Sazalanı, Zigana and Ken. The area between the highlands of Erikbeli, Sazalanı, Ken, Sinlice, Şıkkıranı and Sis dağı is an excellent place for taking nature walks. The Ken highland is 9 km north of the Erikbeli Tourist Center and the Şıkkıran highland is in the forest 19 km north.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Bring your own camping equipment as their are no facilities, but meat, milk, eggs, bread and the like can be obtained in the villages.

Sazalanı Highland

Transportation: The Sazalanı highland is 5 km west of the Erikbeli Tourist Center down a dirt road which is serviced by commercial vehicles during the summer months.

Description: The infrastructure of the village sitting at 1700 m. is complete. There is a restaurant, teahouse and small market.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Bring your own camping gear, but basic supplies can be obtained from the village.

Sis Dağı Highland

Transportation: Access to the village of Sis dağı is provided by a 25 km dirt road out of the Erikbeli Tourist Center.

Description: Improvements have been made to the infrastructure of the village which sits at an elevation of 1550 m. There is a small market, butcher and teahouse. Every year on the third Saturday of July the ‘Sis Dağı’ Festival is held here.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Bring your own camping gear, but basic supplies can be obtained from the village.

Kadırga Highland

Transportation: The Kadırga Highland is 14 km. east of the Erikbeli Tourist Center. Commercial vehicles provide transportation in the summer months along this dirt road.

Description: This village, with an elevation of 2300 m. is located right around the tree line. Every year tens of thousands of people come to the ‘Kadırga’ Festival held here. During the folk dances, competitions, and musical entertainment, literally tons of food and drink is consumed and the whole area looks like a huge bazaar or fairground.

There are basic services such as electricity, running water and toilets as well as a small market, butcher, bakery, restaurant, sewing supplies shop and teahouses.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Bring your own camping gear, but basic supplies can be obtained from the village.

Çatma Obası Highland

Transportation: It is located 14 km east of the Erikbeli Tourist Center and 9 km south of Tonya. As there is no transportation available, car rental is recommended.

Description: This is a very small highland, with an elevation of 2200 m. It is possible to take nature walks between the Erikbeli-Kadırga-Çatma Obası Highland and the Zigana Ski Center. There are several sites in the area which have legends attached to them, for example Mızraklı Su, Şehitler Tepesi and Çıngıraklı Kuyu.

Mızraklı Su: According to legend, during a battle one of the soldiers gets really thirsty. He takes a spear and breaks it in half and throws the two pieces, one to the right and the other to the left, with all of his might. From the place where the first part stuck in the ground, water begins to spring up and it flows down to where the other part of the spear stuck in the ground and disappears. The upper part of this small stream which mysteriously disappears into the grass 50-60 meters down the hill, is protected by a concrete barrier.

Çıngıraklı Kuyu The sound of a rock thrown down the well continues for a long time and that is where the well gets its name. The opening is a cave that is covered by snow most of the year.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: Camping gear and picnic supplies should be brought in as there are no facilities.

Düzköy (Haçka Obası) Highland

Transportation: Access to the village is by way of a 12 km dirt road that begins in the village of Düzköy (40 km. out of Trabzon).

Description: The village, which sits at 1784 m., has basic services. Because of the Kadırga Festival on the 3rd Friday of July and the Karaabdal Festival held on the 14th of August, the tomb of Haçkalı Baba located here has a lot of visitors. There is a small market, butcher, green grocer, bakery and a teahouse.

Accommodation – Food and Drink: There is a bed and breakfast here with 20 beds and plenty of places to buy food and drink.

NATIONAL & NATURAL PARKS

AltındereValleyNational Park

Location: This is the best known park in the Black Sea region, and lies to the west of Trabzon.

Transportation: The park can be reached via the 48km road connecting Trabzon to Macka.

Highlights: In addition to the wide range of flora and fauna, the Sumela Monastery is one of the main sites of the park. Also known as Meryemana, because it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, it lies at an altitude of 300m and was the centre of Christianity in the region. It also has a very significant place in the history of art. It is thought that the monastery was constructed in the 4th century, although Alexios III, (1349 – 1390) can be named as the real founder. It was extended in the 19th century, at a time when it enjoyed its most popular period.

The entrance is via a narrow and long staircase, and consists of water canals, library, kitchen, guest rooms, cisterns, and the pool in which holy water was collected. The building clings dramatically to the sheer rock wall, overlooking mountain forests and mountain springs.

The flora in the park is very rich, the dominant species being the Eastern spruce tree. Fir trees, Scotch pine, chestnut, oak, lime tree, willow, black pine, Caucasian honeysuckle, and forest rose all cover the area. The main species of animal are deer, roe deer, wild goats, wild boar, bears, wolves, jackals, foxes, and lynx, some of which owe their survival to the local flora.

Facilities: Most people visit between April and October, for trekking and to visit the monastery. There are tourist bungalows in specific areas of the park which can be reserved through the office.
UzungölNaturalPark

Location: The park is in the Cankara district, 25km from Trabzon and 19km from Cankara.

Transportation: The park can be reached via the 010 state highway from Trabzon, then from Caykara for another 19km.

Highlights: The 1625 hectares of the park were designated a Nature Park in 1989 because of the rich plant life, wildlife and sightseeing potential. The dominant tree species is Eastern spruce, and there are also badger, bearded, alder, horn-beam, hazelnut, oak, mountain elm and silver birch trees. Species of animals include mountain goat, roe deer, bear, wolf, wild boar, marten, badger, lynx, jackal, fox, rabbit, squirrel, wild ducks, birds of prey, trout and various kinds of reptiles.

The most important river in the area is the Demirkapi, and the Uzungol Lake was formed as a result of the rocks closing the mouth of the river. 10km south of the lake is the Norizca mountain, with an altitude of 300m. The best time to visit the park is between April and October.

Facilities: There is accommodation in the park.

ORNITHOLOGY AREAS

Eastern Black Sea Mountains

City: Trabzon, Gümüşhane, Bayburt, Rize, Erzurum, Artvin
Provinces: There are 32 provinces within important bird areas
Surface Area : 1.230.000
Altitude : 0 – 3932 m
Protection: partially

Bird Species: It gains important bird areas status with sakallı akbaba (20 pairs), kızıl akbaba (20 pairs), kara akbaba (10 pairs), kaya kartalı (10 pairs), huş tavuğu (all Turkey population is within these important bird areas) and ürkeklik populations. These important bird areas including seven regions had been investigated during a research performed on 1993, and a total of 134 mature male huş tavuğu had been determined within six of them. When narrowness of the researched area and wideness of appropriate life environments are considered, it can be deemed that total number of huş tavuğu population within important bird areas exceeds 1000 pairs. But, discover of various important new immigration valley recently is showing that these numbers can be much more than deemed. Due to representation of Eurasia High Mountainous (Alpine) biomes within turkey by Eastern Black Sea Mountains, it is the only area which gained important bird areas status.

Main Characteristics: Forest, mountain, immigration pass

CAVES

Çalköy Cavern, AkarsuVillage Cavern

ÇalköyCave

Location: Trabzon, Düzköy District
The cave is located at the Çalköy Borough of Düzköy.

Properties: The entrance part of the cave is at average human height. After the first 150 meters, stalactite and stalagmites are encountered. The cave is thought to be extremely long and the exact length is unknown. There is a river flowing through the river. The cave has partially wide locations and partially narrow locations. There is a castle established at the upper side of the cave dominating the area.

AkarsuVillageCave

Location: Trabzon, Maçka District
The cave is located inside the borders of Akarsu Village of Maçka.

Properties: It is a big cave. The cave had been formerly used for shelter and accommodation. It is said that there are 72 rooms inside the cave. There are numerous stalactite and water pools inside the cave. A detailed exploration had not been carried on yet.

Geography

Trabzon has typical of a Black Sea climate, with rain the year round and temperatures reaching up to around 27°C in the summer. Winters are cool and damp, and the lowest temperature is around 5°C in January. The water temperature fluctuates between 10° – 20°C throughout the year.

History

The city was first founded by Colonists from Sinope and Miletus during the 8th century BC, originally called Trapezus (derived from the ancient Greek word for table) and situated above the harbour. It prospered under the Romans and Byzantines, mainly in the shipping trade, and as a branch of the Silk Road.

When the Fourth Crusaders seized Constantinople in 1204, the imperial family from Comnenus established an empire along the Black Sea Coast and Alexius set up the Empire of Trebizond. This was a golden era for the city, and the 13th and 14th centuries saw the successful reign of Alexius II who created great wealth, trade and culture, making Trebizond something of an artistic icon to rival the great Italian Renaissance.

His reign ended after a destructive civil war in 1341, and over a century later Mehmet the Conqueror brought the city under Ottoman rule and revived the port as a trading centre. The city was then conquered by in 1461 by Fatih Sultan Mehmet, and while Selim the Grim was the Prince, Suleyman the Magnificent was born here and came to power in 1520. During the late Ottoman period, the city had a great Christian influence in terms of culture, and a wealthy merchant class who created several Western consulates. The city is still a busy trading centre, more so after the collapse of the USSR, although the shipping industry fell into decline after the rail route between Ankara and Erzurum, and the road to Iran.

Where to Eat

One of the most common ingredients of the region is anchovy, which is found in many dishes like hamsi pilaf (anchovies cooked with rice) and kaygana (omelette or pancake). Savoy cabbage grows locally and is roasted, and other common dishes include cornflour bread, Trabzon pide, Akcaabat meatballs and Hamsikoy rice pudding.

What to Buy

Trabzon boasts a unique woven hand-made silver jewellery, widely available in Kemeralti Bazzar, which is the main shopping centre for the city’s residents. It is based on the traditional single storey arasta style corridor, and narrow pavements. The Goldsmiths and Silversmiths bazaar is also interesting, and the main entrance to the bazaar is Kunduracilar Caddesi. The Russian market, situated on the east of the city centre around Comlekci Caddesi, is interesting for its imported Russian goods sold by traders from across the border.

Don’t Leave Without

– Exploring Trabzon castle, lying between the sea to the hills and the best protected structure of the region,

– Visiting the 19th century Atatürk palace, a gift from Trabzon,

– Seeing Fatih (Irena) Tower,

– Visiting the area during the Plateau festivals, from the first Sunday May until the end of August,

– Making a trip to Sumela Monastery,

– Feasting on savoy cabbage, kayana and Hamsiköy rice pudding,

– Visiting Uzungöl,

– Tasting trout with butter, and sampling the unique dishes of the Black Sea.

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