Erzurum’un İngilizce Tanıtımı
Erzurum’un İngilizce Tanıtımı
Area: 25.066 km²
Population: 848.201 (1990)
Traffic Code: 25
Erzurum is the biggest city of the Eastern Anatolian Region and is also a very ancient settlement place. As the city is established at the skirts of Palandöken Mountain, the city had gained great importance in the field of winter tourism during the recent years. The city houses numerous historically rich works of art and therefore the city is like a cultural center having the major potential for tourism.
Districts : Aşkale, Çat, Hınıs, Horasan, Ilıca, İspir, Karaçoban, Karayazı, Köprüköy, Narman, Oltu, Olur, Pasinler, Pazaryolu, Şenkaya, Tekman, Tortum, Uzundere.
How to Get
Erzurum is connected to the neighboring provinces and to the other regions of the country by a network of highways, railways and air ways.
Highway The bus terminal is at the city center. Terminal Tel : (+90 – 442) 233 12 00
Railway The Railway Station is at the city center. Railway Station Tel: (+90 – 442) 218 19 16
Airway The Erzurum Airport is 10 km away from the city center. From Erzurum Airport, domestic and foreign flights are executed by the connection of Ankara. Airport Tel: (+90 – 442) 327 28 35
Where to Visit
Erzurum Castle The castle is on the ancient Silk Road of Horasan – Pasinler – Erzurum which is 79 kilometers away from Erzurum Province. The first construction date of the Erzurum Castle is not certain but it is assumed that this castle was built in the first period of 5th century A.D by Byzantines.
The WatchTower The watch Tower was constructed as a minaret to the Inner castle small mosque and is also named as Tray Minaret and Tower. The Watch Tower which is located on the ramparts of the Erzurum Castle which was constructed on a dominant hill over the city and could be seen from every location in the city.
ÇobadedeBridge The bridge was constructed by the Vizier Emir Çoban Salduz of Ilhans between 1297 – 98. It is a major creation constructed on the Aras River with seven arched sections.
Rüstem Paşa Bedesteni It was constructed by the Grand Vizier of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman (Magnificent Süleyman) Rüstem Paşa. This two floored building displaying the properties of the Ottoman architecture is currently used as a shopping center. Especially oltu stone dealers are present in the shopping center.
DoubleMinaretTheologySchool The school was constructed by İlhans at the end of the 13th century. Constructed with the architecture tradition of Anatolian Seljuks the theology school has an open courtyard and is two layered and has two minarets. Double Minaret Theology School is the biggest theology school of Anatolia.
YakutiyeTheologySchoolThe theology school was constructed by Hoca Celaleddin Yakut in 1310 B.C. The structure is one of the rare creations of the İlhanlı Period that could withstand until the present day.
MOSGUES AND CHURCHES
The Lalapaşa Mosque and Owshank Church at the city center are worth seeing.
Erzurum Mosques and Churches
Theology School With Double Minarets (Center): It is constructed by Seljukian Sultan, Alaaddin Keykubad’s daughter Hüdavend Hatun on 1253. It is the biggest of the theology schools with double minarets with double storey and open air courtyard. It is one of the most beautiful examples of Seljukian style with its corolla gate, relief adornments.
YakutiyeTheologySchool (Center): It is a artistically highly valuable piece of art, remaining from İlhanlılar. According to the Arabic inscription on its corolla gate, it is constructed on 1310 by Hoca Cemaleddin Yakut with the aids of Sultan Gazan and Balugan Hatun of Horasan. Theology school, is one of the pieces of arts, which did not loose its importance until today like Double Minarets.
Ulu Mosque (Atabey Cami, Merkez): Mosque, which is thought to be constructed by Saltukoğulları on 1179, had been repaired for several times during the course of time, and used other than its real function from time to time.
Three Kumbets (Center): There are two great characteristics of these magnificent kumbets, which are remaining from Saltukoğulları period. First one is being one of the first pieces of arts in Anatolia, and the second one is all these three kumbets are constructed with completely different architectural style.
The one, which is placed on eight edged plan from three kumbets, is thought to be belong to Emir Saltuk, who is the founder of Saltuklu State. In the other two, which are completely constructed from cut stones, no one knows who is buried.
Three Vaults The vault which sits on the eight sided plan is assumed to be belonging to the Emir Saltuk, which is the founder of Saltuklu State. The constructors of the remaining two vaults, which were constructed totally from the block stones are not known. The period of construction of the vaults are assumed to be of the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century. Because of their different plans, materials used in the construction and the decorations, the Three Vaults holds a separate place among the other vaults of Turks.
Pasinler Thermal Springs
Location: Pasinler, 40km east of Erzurum in Eastern Anatolia.
Transportation: Transport to Erzurum is easy by bus or air. Pasinler is on the main international highway to the Iranian border.
Water temperature: 39°C – 45°C
pH value: 6.5
Physical and chemical properties: Bicarbonate, chlorine, sodium and carbon dioxide and mildly radioactive.
Recommended: Applications Drinking and bathing
Helps to heal: Rheumatism, mental and muscular fatigue, nervous disorders, joint pain and calcium deposits.
Accommodation: There are better options in Erzurum.
Eastern Blacksea Mountain
City: Trabzon, Gümüşhane, Bayburt, Rize, Erzurum, Artvin
Provinces: There are 32 provinces within important bird areas
Surface Area : 1.230.000
Altitude : 0 – 3932 m
Bird Species: It gains important bird areas status with sakallı akbaba (20 pairs), kızıl akbaba (20 pairs), kara akbaba (10 pairs), kaya kartalı (10 pairs), huş tavuğu (all Turkey population is within these important bird areas) and ürkeklik populations. These important bird areas including seven regions had been investigated during a research performed on 1993, and a total of 134 mature male huş tavuğu had been determined within six of them. When narrowness of the researched area and wideness of appropriate life environments are considered, it can be deemed that total number of huş tavuğu population within important bird areas exceeds 1000 pairs. But, discover of various important new immigration valley recently is showing that these numbers can be much more than deemed. Due to representation of Eurasia High Mountainous (Alpine) biomes within turkey by Eastern Black Sea Mountains, it is the only area which gained important bird areas status.
Main Characteristics: Forest, mountain, immigration pass
Surface Area : 3300
Altitude : 1750 m
Bird Species: It gains important bird areas status due to turna (15 pairs) population as well as angıt (max. 1500) ve ak kanatlı sumru (max. 15.000), which can be seen with important numbers during immigration seasons.
Main Characteristics: sweet water lake, swamp
Rafting The Çoruh River flowing at the border of the İspir District of Erzurum is among the most suitable rivers for rafting. Çoruh attracts the tourists by its deep canyons and hundreds of tourists come to visit these canyons. The World Rafting Championship was arranged at Çoruh River in 1993.
Trekking The daily trekking activities are arranged for foreign and local tourists at the Dumlu Mountains which are at the south of Erzurum. After three hours of walking, the participants of this trekking activity reach to the cold water spring of Karasu Creek(also called as Dumbu Baba) as one of the major branches of Rırat River. After a short rest at this location, the visitors make their return path from the Kırkgöze Village. Similar mountain trekking activities are carried on the Palandöken Mountains, which are to the south of Erzurum.
Ski Centers Palandöken Ski Resort, which is one of the major ski centers of Turkey is inside the borders of Erzurum Province.
Palandöken Ski Center
ERZURUM – Palandöken
Palandoken mountain has an altitude of 3185 m, and is south of Erzurum. This was the area of the first extensive study in the country looking at a master plan for tourism potential, which concluded that the area has the necessary potential and qualities to be a major international resort. Given the right facilities, it is estimated that 32,000 people could ski per day and could be the venue of international competitions and even Winter Olympics, giving job opportunities to around 6000 people.
Arrival: There are daily flights to Erzurum from Ankara and Istanbul. The ski resort is 5km from the city centre, and 10 minutes from the airport. During the winter season, there are public buses from the ski resort to the city centre.
Geography: Erzurum is one of the highest and coldest cities of Turkey, with a harsh terrestrial climate and covered with snow 150 days of a year, and an average annual snowfall of 2-3m. The dominant wind direction is southerly and westerly. The skiing area is at an altitude of 2200m – 3176m, and best time to ski is between 10 December – 10 May.
Facilities: There are 4- and 5-star hotels with restaurants, and ski instruction and equipment rental services are available. The slopes here are among the longest and steepest in the world, each one up to 12km, giving a total length of around 28 km. With the altitude difference of 1000 metres between the start and finish line, Palandoken has two registered tracks for competitions of Slalom and grand Slalom. (Ejder Track and Kapikaya Track). There are five chair-lifts, one T-bar, two baby lifts and a gondola lift.
The city of Erzurum is located in the region of severe terrestrial Eastern Anatolian climate region. The annual heat average of the city is approximately 6.0 ºC.
The foundation of the city of Erzurum, which is the greatest city of Eastern Anatolia is assumed to be at the date of 4900 B.C. The region including Erzurum was dominated by various tribes and nations as Urartu, Kimmers, the Scythians, Meds, Persians, Parphts, Romans, Sassanids, Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantine, Mongols and Ilkhanids. The city and the surrounding region was conquered by Ottomans in 1514 and continued their dominance until 1923, in which the Republic of Turkey was founded.
The Congress was assembled in Erzurum (July 23,1919),where the foundations of national strife, national unity and independence movements were laid.
Where to Eat
Su böreği (wet pastry), ekşili dolma (sour stuffed vegetables), kesme çorbası (soup), ayran aşı (yayla çorbası) (nomads soup), çiriş, şalgam dolması (stuffed turnip), yumurta pilavı (egg pilaf), kadayıf dolması could be counted among the traditional meals of Erzurum.
What to Buy
Erzurum is famous about its oltu stone craftsmanship. The major souvenirs of the city could be counted as prayer beads, cigarette holders, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips crafted from the oltu stone.
Don’t Leave Without
- Skiing at Palandöken,
- Visiting the double minaret Theology School, Yakutiye Theology School and museums
- Rafting if you happen to go to İspir,
- Visiting Tortum Waterfall and Lake if you happen to go to Tortum,
- Tasting Cağ kebap, su böreği ,ayran çorbası , kadayıf dolması